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To provide additional support that the zona incerta plays a role in the observed cortical inhibition, we performed a new series of experiments in which zona incerta is inhibited using optogenetics during 10 Hz stimulation of central thalamus ( Figure 5 ). We report that targeted inhibition of the zona incerta during 10 Hz central thalamus stimulation reverses the cortical inhibition effect. That is, suppressing zona incerta activity has a net excitatory effect on cortex. These data suggest that zona incerta plays a causal role in contributing to the cortical inhibition reported.

As noted above, we have performed a new series of experiments using optical inhibition of zona incerta to demonstrate this region’s causal role in the frequency-dependent inhibition of cortex. In addition, we have significantly revised the manuscript to discuss alternative hypotheses of the cortical inhibition’s mechanism, including disynaptic thalamocortical inhibition (see Discussion, paragraph four) and disynaptic corticocortical inhibition (see Discussion, paragraph six).

As explained in our response to Reviewer #2, we chose to keep the duty cycle constant in these experiments to keep both the total amount of light delivery and pulse train duration constant. Maintaining a constant amount of light delivery is important to mitigate possible confounding factors associated with heating (Christie et al., 2013). Similarly, maintaining constant pulse train duration is necessary to avoid possible differences in neuronal adaptation that would occur when changing the train duration by such a large factor (e.g. an order of magnitude between 10 and 100 Hz).

To provide additional insight regarding this potential confound, we performed additional fMRI experiments keeping both the pulse width and train duration constant. Our results show that the transition from negative to positive BOLD signals in cortex is preserved, as well as the changes in activation volume in cortex and striatum ( Sale Get Authentic 100% Guaranteed Prada Patent Leather PeepToe Flats Buy Cheap Really dLiwt8g
). Although these stimulus trains deliver different amounts of total light, the fact that we see these phenomena while varying frequency and keeping either the total amount of light delivery ( Figures 2 and 3 ) or pulse width ( Figure 2—figure supplement 3 ) constant suggests that frequency is the main determinant in driving these effects.

We agree with the reviewer that the issue of stimulation selectivity is a very important one, and we paid careful attention to it throughout the experimental design process. In particular, we used a large sample size ( n = 10-16 animals) and ensured that the stimulation location was within a very narrow range across animals using high-resolution in vivo imaging and excluding over half the original cohort ( n = 47) from analysis. To ensure that stimulation was primarily limited to the targeted nuclei, we also titrated the power level to achieve an activation cone of appropriate scale ( Figure 1A ). Given these measures, the authors are confident in the claim that the effects reported in this manuscript are primarily driven by the intralaminar nuclei of central thalamus. Because there is no genetic marker that differentiates intralaminar nuclei from the rest of thalamus, development of a Cre-mouse line is currently not possible. Nevertheless, we agree that such an experiment would be ideal.

While multilens smartphone cameras date as far back as , it’s thanks to advances in A.I., shrinking camera module technology, and the increased size of the average smartphone that it’s become a full-on trend. And three cameras, which may sound excessive, is the natural progression as photo-taking increasingly becomes one of a phone’s most vital functions. A third lens can further optimize the detail, zoom capabilities, or scope of a photo, but it can also be used for special effects typically reserved for Prada Espadrille Platform Wedges Professional Affordable Cheap Price Store Sale Clearance Really df4UiMGhT
, giving users fun new ways to capture memories. At this point, it’s unclear whether three camera systems like the P20 Pro’s or LG’s reported upcoming handset will be more of a novelty for photography die-hards or evolve into the new standard. But if the adoption of dual-lens systems is any indication, it’s an idea we’ll definitely start seeing more often.

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Christina Bonnington is a technology writer whose work has appeared in Wired, Refinery29, the Daily Dot, and elsewhere.

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